Body language - basics and introduction Body language is a powerful concept which successful people tend to understand well. If you carry out any serious analysis or discussion you should clarify the terminology in your own way to suit your purposes. Does body language include facial expression and eye movement? What about breathing and perspiration?
If a team of scientists in Philadelphia and New York have their way, using race to categorize groups of people in biological and genetic research will be forever discontinued.
The concept of race in such research is "problematic at best and harmful at worst," the researchers argued in a new paper published in the journal Science on Friday. So what does all this mean?
Why is it problematic to view race as a biological concept? For more than a century, natural and social scientists have been arguing about whether race is a useful classificatory tool in the biological sciences -- can it elucidate the relationship between humans and their evolutionary history, between humans and their health.
In the wake of the U. Human Genome Projectthe answer seemed to be a pretty resounding "no. Yet, as our paper highlights, the use of race persist in genetics, despite voices like Collins, like Craig Venter -- leaders in the field of genomics -- who have called on the field to move beyond it.
We believe it is time to revisit this century-long debate and bring biologists, social scientists and scholars from the humanities together in a constructive way to find better ways to study the ever-important subject of human diversity.
The race concept should be removed from genetics research for the following reasons: Genetic methods do not support the classification of humans into discrete races, [and] racial assumptions are not good biological guideposts. Races are not genetically homogenous and lack clear-cut genetic boundaries.
And because of this, using race as a proxy to make clinical predictions is about probability. Of course, medicine can be about best guesses, but are we serving patients well if medical decisions are made because a patient identifies as part of a certain racial group or are identified as belonging to a specific race?
What if, for example, the probability is that if you are white you are 90 percent likely to have a beneficial or at least non-harmful reaction to a particular drug? That sounds pretty good, but what if you are that 1 in 10 that is likely to have a harmful reaction?
They are best guesses for an individual. We also believe that a variable so mired in historical and contemporary controversy has no place in modern genetics. Race has both scientific and social meanings that are impossible to tease apart, and we worry that using such a concept in modern genetics does not serve the field well.
We hope that our paper spurs scientists to rethink the use of race in human genetic research. Michael Yudell, researcher in the fields of ethics, genomics and public health Based on your research, what is race? Genetics has long struggled with the definition of race. In the first decades of the 20th century, race was defined by discrete types, the belief that one member of a race was thought to share the same physical and social traits with other members of that race.
In these early ideas about race, races generally mapped onto continental populations. Beginning in the s, with the rise of modern population genetics and evolutionary biology, race was reimagined in the context of evolutionary biology and population genetics.
Instead of racial groups being fixed between continents, the race concept was a way to understand the frequency of individual genes in different human populations. In this way, race was a methodological tool that biologists could utilize to study human genetic diversity that did not reflect an underlying hierarchy between human populations.
This was simply about gene frequencies between groups. And it is this understanding of race that is still largely the way modern science understands the term. But the scientist who helped rethink race in the s and s -- the great evolutionary geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky, a Russia-trained scientist who spent most of his career at Columbia University -- would later in his career voice concern that the use of the race concept in biology had "floundered in confusion and misunderstanding.
In the s, Dobzhansky was moved by factors, both internal and external to science, to call into question the utility of racial classifications. The rise of the civil rights movement, the appropriation of biological conceptions of race to counter civil rights advances, and his own disputes with colleagues over the imprecise and sometimes inappropriate use of the term race led him to call on biologists to develop better methods for investigating human genetic diversity.
This paradox is rooted in the nature of the field. Like Dobzhansky, we and many others in genetics, anthropology and the social sciences have called on scientists to devise better methods to improve the study of human genetic diversity.
The field is still trying to respond to Dobzhansky, and we hope that our paper spurs scientists to rethink the use of race in human genetic research. Race also, of course, has social meanings. And by suggesting that race is not a useful tool for classifying humans, we do not mean to say that somehow race is not real.
Race is, of course, real. We live in a country and a world where skin color has long been used as a way to systematize discrimination and brutality.The connection between race and intelligence has been a subject of debate in both popular science and academic research since the inception of IQ testing in the early 20th century.
There remains some debate as to whether and to what extent differences in intelligence test scores reflect environmental factors as opposed to genetic ones, as . Race and ethnicity are related, but distinct. One has to do with biology while the other has to do with culture.
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Ethnicity is the term for the culture of people in a given geographic region, including their language, heritage, religion and customs. To be a member of an ethnic group is to conform to some or.
Race: Race, the idea that the human species is divided into distinct groups on the basis of inherited physical and behavioral differences. Genetic studies in the late 20th century refuted the existence of biogenetically distinct races, and scholars now argue that “races” are cultural interventions.
For many people, ethnic categorization implies a connection between biological inheritance and culture. They believe that biological inheritance determines much .