Declining grammar and other essays on the english vocabulary

It has been suggested that Tolkien used the dual to give Quenya an "archaic feel" in its role as an ancient language of the Elves. Instead of learning from the Valar, the Elves had created an original language Quenderin which had become the proto-language of the Elven language family. These groups in Quenya normally became simplified to nasals initially. In Telerin they became b, d, g.

Declining grammar and other essays on the english vocabulary

I've also been experimenting with a new search engine. It's very rudimentary, but may be useful. Introduction These notes are a miscellany of grammatical rules and explanations, comments on styleand suggestions on usage I put together for my classes.

Anyone who can resist turning my own preferences into dogma is welcome to use this HTML edition. Feedback is always welcome. I should be clear up front: I'm not a linguist, nor a scholar of the history of the language.

If you're curious about who I am, you can look at my CV and decide whether I'm worth listening to. I reject any model of linguistic decline, in which the twenty-first century speaks a decadent version of the language of some golden age. In my grumpier moods, I'm convinced the whole world's going to hell — but then, I'm convinced the whole world's been going to hell since time out of mind.

In my more sanguine moods, I wonder whether hell isn't such a bad place to be after all. Because these notes may be useful in making your writing clearer and more effective. I'm not out to make definitive statements about what's right and what's wrong, and Lord knows I wouldn't be qualified even if I tried.

I can, however, make suggestions on things that are likely to work — by which, as you'll see throughout this guide, I mean have an effect on your audience. The entries here are of two types: The specific articles can be further divided into two classes: The specific articles are intended for quick reference, such as when you have to find out whether which or that is appropriate.

The general articles lend themselves to browsing and absorbing over time. It's more often the result of muddled thought.

War and Other Essays - Online Library of Liberty

Bad writers consider long words more impressive than short ones, and use words like usage instead of use or methodologies instead of methods without knowing what they mean. They qualify everything with It has been noted after careful consideration, and the facts get buried under loads of useless words.

They pay no attention to the literal sense of their words, and end up stringing stock phrases together without regard for meaning. I've tried to steer clear of technical terms and, wherever possible, have tried to explain grammatical jargon.

This has sometimes meant sacrificing precision for convenience; more sophisticated writers and grammarians will doubtless see points to quibble over, but I hope these notes get the idea across to tyros. Every article on points of grammar — dangling participlessplit infinitives — begins with a practical definition of the term, followed by some useful rules, and examples of good and bad writing.

Sometimes there are suggestions on how to identify possible problems. The definitions and discussions are not exhaustive, just rules of thumb. The books below are either classics in the field or my own faves. Fowler, Modern English Usage.

This seven-hundred-page volume of small type includes every conceivable stylistic point, arranged alphabetically, and written in an informal but quirky tone.

Almost every entry has illustrative quotations from real life.

How Does Texting Influence The English Language?

Fowler was qualified for the job, having just compiled the Concise Oxford Dictionary. Yanks may find this classic work unsuitable because of its focus on British Englishand much of it has been outdated in the eight decades since its first edition's completion.

Still worth a look. A companion, Modern American Usage by Follett, makes up for some of Fowler's disadvantages, but lacks the charm of the original.

Declining grammar and other essays on the english vocabulary

Sir Ernest Gowers et al. Ernest Gowers's Plain Words is a guide to effective writing from the s for British civil servants. Over the years it has gone through many editions and been changed by many hands.

The most recent version, The Complete Plain Wordsstill shows its focus on British usage and the civil service, but many of its suggestions are excellent. Most of the book is a discussion of common writing problems, with examples of good and bad writing.Hire a highly qualified essay writer to cater for all your content needs.

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Graphic from Strategic Planet. News today (and not it is not April Fool’s) is that URL shortener.

Here is the message: Starting March 30, , we will be turning down support for URL shortener. INTRODUCTION. In , when the author of the essays here assembled was elected professor of political and social science in Yale College, he was, to use his own words, “a young and untried man.” He was selected for his position, not as a specialist, but because he was what he was.

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Vocabulary: how to refuse politely "YES" slips off our mouth before we have a chance to stop it, even if our heart shouts "NO".

Our head screams that we don't want that, but we daren't say the words, we can't speak, even if deep inside, we refuse to agree to something we can't do, or don't feel like doing.

In short, the evidence suggests that grammatical violations in the text messages of children, adolescents, and adults do not reflect a decline in grammatical knowledge.

Forms of "Other" - GrammarBank